2015-08-26

# Problem 076: Counting summations

Description:

It is possible to write five as a sum in exactly six different ways:

``````4 + 1
3 + 2
3 + 1 + 1
2 + 2 + 1
2 + 1 + 1 + 1
1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1``````

How many different ways can one hundred be written as a sum of at least two positive integers?

Solution:
v  X OO    // Project Euler - Problem 76
v
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v+1           p:+3\+1g06:\$<            > :50g\-3v
>"d"30p1>:30g`#v_:50p060p1>:50g-!#^_::::50g\-`#^_:     3v
>1+:1+g.@  ^+1p+3g05+3\p06:+g06g+3-\g05\+<
Start
??
Pause
Reset
Output:
Stack:   (0)

Explanation:

The big trick is - similar to many other problems - caching.

This problem remembered me a little bit of problem-15. We use a `100x100` grid to remember pre-calculated sums.

So in cell [3, 6] is the amount of sums which result in `6`, start with `3` and have all summands in descending order:

``````3 + 3
3 + 2 + 1
3 + 1 + 1``````

You see `cache[3,6] = 3`.

Now to find a new value (for example `[4, 7]`) we just have to look at the our cache:

``````7 = 4 + x
sum(x) = 7-4 = 3

// first_digit_of_x <= first_digit, because of the descending order
sum(x) = sum([n, 3]); n = [1..3]
sum(x) = [3, 3] + [2, 3] + [1, 3] ``````

You see it's important not only to remember the amount but also the first (= highest) summand, so we can guarantee the oder of the sums (an this way that we don't count any sums multiple times).

Note: `cache[a, a]` is always `1`. But the problem rules dictate that when we calculate the final result we must ignore this (`100 = 100` is not a valid solution)

Oh and this algorithm improves the native approach (enumerating all solutions) from `O(wtf)` to `O(n^2)`. I'm not sure if I would be still alive when my first algorithm finishes :)

Edit:

I did a little optimization:

The value of cell `[d, s]` is now the sum of all previous cells from `[0, s]` to `[d, s]`.

This way we don't have to iterate through all the cells from 0 to d every time. We can just look at the biggest cell which contains the sum of all previous.

 Interpreter steps: 296 178 Execution time (BefunExec): 32ms (9.26 MHz) Program size: 104 x 108 Solution: 190569291 Solved at: 2015-08-26

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